Russia’s Defense Ministry was quoted by news agency RIA Novosti on Tuesday as citing its ballistic missile early warning system.
Interfax news agency also quoted a Defence Ministry spokesman as saying the launch was detected at 10:16 a.m. Moscow time (0616 GMT) by an early warning radar station at Armavir, near the Black Sea, which is designed to detect missiles from Europe.
The agencies did not say who had carried out the launch and whether any impact had been detected. The ministry declined to comment in this regard.
Defence Minister Sergei Shoigu had informed President Vladimir Putin of the launch.
"The trajectory of these objects goes from the central part of the Mediterranean Sea toward the eastern part of the Mediterranean coast," Interfax quoted the spokesman as saying.
The Russian Embassy in Syria said there were no signs of a missile attack or explosions in Damascus on Tuesday.
The Israeli military also said that it was "not aware" of any missile launch in eastern Mediterranean.
A ministry official had earlier criticized the United States for deploying warships in the Mediterranean close to Syria.